Natural Resources Management
Aquaculture and Aquatic Animal Health
Cooperation on Farmed and Wild Fish Interaction for Canada and United States of America | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Aquaculture Management Directorate (Policy Regulatory Initiatives)
Glynn Gomes developed a report to support Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s (DFO’s) and the United States Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) collaboration on the management of interactions between farmed and wild fish relating to genetic interactions and pathogen transfer. For more information on DFO’s and NOAA’s regulatory cooperation on marine aquaculture, see the agencies’ Regulatory Cooperation Council Regulatory Partnership Statement and work plan. This project relates to Work Stream B (cooperation on farmed to wild fish interactions) in the work plan. Glynn conducted interviews of key government and industry stakeholders in Canada and the United States to collect information and perspective on relevant issues.
Glynn compared and assessed legislations, regulations, policies and other instruments used to manage genetic, pathogen and pest interactions between farmed and wild fish in Canada and the United States. This included discussion of the following issues:
- Genetic Interactions – biocontainment, marine mammal interactions, and monitoring programs for genetics issues;
- Pathogens and Pests – fish health management, monitoring for pathogens and pest issues, and geographical approaches (i.e., siting and area approaches); and,
- Overall Regulatory Risk Assessment Framework – for potential genetic interactions and potential pathogen transfers.
Glynn considered the feasibility of developing a joint message statement on equivalence of Canadian and American marine net pen aquaculture regulatory programs. He also explored areas for cooperation on escape management and codes of containment to identify potential areas of regulatory alignment on management of farmed and wild fish interactions for senior management consideration at DFO and NOAA.
The final deliverable was an 85-page report (plus two appendices) that focused on the following jurisdictions:
- Canada – federal, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia; and,
- United States – federal, and primarily Maine and Washington, but also Hawaii.
Investigation of Canadian Aquaculture Business Risk Management Strategies | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Aquaculture Management Directorate
- Glynn updated the Canadian aquaculture risk profile to facilitate improvements in business risk management practices used in the Canadian marine and freshwater finfish, and shellfish, aquaculture industry. He conducted a consultation of key aquaculture stakeholders from the West coast, Central Canada, and the East coast, who provided important perspective on these sectors. Glynn described the main business risk management strategies used in Canada in each of the noted regions.
- Glynn also described a range of business risk management programs from Europe, the United States, Chile and Asia, and a multinational aquaculture company. This included a review of various private, public or mixed strategies.
- Glynn summarized available historical information on aquaculture insurance premiums and payouts. He also summarized compensations through various government programs (e.g., payments made by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, the Disaster Relief Fund, and the East Coast Salmon Aquaculture Compensation Association).
- He described Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada business risk management programming and its applicability to Canadian aquaculture. This included review of Growing Forward 2 (AgriInsurance, AgriInvest, AgriRecovery, AgriRisk Initiatives, AgriStability), and its successor Canadian Agricultural Partnership (2018–2023), Advance Payments Program, Farm Income Stabilization Insurance (Québec), Dairy Livestock Insurance Program and Poultry Insurance Plan (Nova Scotia).
- He offered several recommendations on aquaculture business risk management options and trade implications.
- The final deliverable is a 46-page report, plus an appendix that describes aquaculture risks identified during information sharing sessions with the aquaculture industry in 2005.
This project was done under subcontract to LinHR Consulting Inc.
Report of Canadian Aquaculture Reviews and Panels | Office of the Chief Science Advisor of Canada
Glynn reviewed documentation that provided formal advice and recommendations on finfish and shellfish aquaculture in Canada. This work supported the work of Canada’s Chief Science Adviser who was leading an independent expert panel on aquaculture science. The panel’s purpose was to advise Government of Canada on: consideration of scientific evidence in risk-based aquaculture decision-making; priority setting for DFO’s aquaculture science work; and, how to improve communication of aquaculture science findings and decisions to Canadians. He prepared a 43-page report that summarized the information in tabular format organized by theme, recommendations relating to aquaculture, jurisdictional management response, timeline of responses, region of applicability, and information source.
Glynn summarized 71 recommendations and reported government jurisdiction management responses. Key themes considered included:
- Fish Health and Fitness
- Environmental Effects / Ecosystem Health
- Risk-based Decision-making
- Enforcement and Compliance
- Governance / Program Administration
- Pubic Engagement / Consultation
Administering the Fish Habitat Protection Provisions of the Fisheries Act in Relation to Open-Water Finfish and Shellfish Aquaculture Operations | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Habitat Management Directorate
This project involved conducting a consultation of Habitat Management officials from Fisheries & Oceans Canada (DFO) Regions and National Headquarters, and reviewing documentation provided by these officials. The purpose of the project was to summarize and compare current approaches to administering the fish habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act in relation to new and existing open-water finfish and shellfish aquaculture operations in all DFO Regions (six regions: Pacific, Central & Arctic, Quebec, Gulf, Maritimes, and Newfoundland & Labrador).
The project described the approaches used in each Region to address the following issues:
- Baseline information requirements for site proposals (i.e., information DFO asks proponents to provide);
- Decision criteria used to make fish habitat decisions (e.g., siting criteria, show-stoppers, baseline data thresholds, predictive models, etc.);
- Regulatory tools used to indicate Habitat Management approval and/or impose fish habitat conditions on operators (e.g., federal or provincial licenses, permits, leases, authorizations, letters of advice, operational statements, class assessments, etc.); and,
- Monitoring protocols and information requirements, and mechanisms used to ensure monitoring is completed (i.e., information DFO requests and how it ensures that it receives the information).
Common practices and those that differ significantly among the Regions were identified. We also conducted an interview process that explored the rationale for noted differences in practices. The study included analysis of how each regional approach linked to respective provincial regulatory processes. Deliverables included: a comprehensive report and slide show summarizing findings. This work expanded on the project described below.
Administering the Fish Habitat Protection Provisions of the Fisheries Act in Relation to Open-Water Marine Finfish Aquaculture Operations | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Aquaculture Management Directorate
This project summarized current approaches in three DFO Regions (Pacific, Maritimes, Newfoundland & Labrador) to administering the fish habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act in relation to new and existing open-water marine finfish aquaculture operations. This was achieved by interviewing and liaising with Habitat Management Program officials from these three DFO Regions and from DFO National Headquarters, and reviewing relevant documentation. The investigation described:
- Siting criteria (e.g., depth considerations, distance between aquaculture facilities, avoidance of fish habitat or marine resources, and models, GIS or other electronic tools) to avoid negative effects to fish and fish habitat when locating new marine finfish aquaculture facilities;
- Tools or methods to predict the potential effects to fish and fish habitat (e.g., habitat assessment surveys, monitoring, baseline data collection, DEPOMOD modelling) from new or existing facilities;
- Mitigation of potential fish habitat effects from new or existing facilities;
- Fish habitat monitoring requirements (e.g., benthic monitoring, habitat compensation monitoring) for proponents; and,
- Relevant regulatory and administrative tools (e.g., federal acts, Fisheries Act Section 35 review process, provincial and other instruments).
The work also included an analysis of similarities and rational for differences in practices, including an overview of major socio-economic and ecological differences among the three DFO Regions.
Summary Report for the 2007 National Habitat Management Working Group on Aquaculture | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Habitat Management Directorate
This project reported on the engagement of DFO’s National Habitat Management Working Group on Aquaculture, and representatives from Aquaculture Management Directorate and the Centre for Integrated Aquaculture Science, in strategic discussion and work-planning related to Habitat Management Program’s regulatory role in aquaculture. The workshop involved National Headquarters and several DFO Regions: Pacific; Central & Arctic; Maritimes; Gulf; and, Newfoundland & Labrador. Outcomes included the following:
- Overview of Habitat Management Program’s current knowledge and practices associated with regulatory review of Canadian aquaculture;
- Identification of gaps and areas requiring improvement of effectiveness, efficiency and coherence of Habitat Management Program regulatory practices; and,
- A work plan for the Working Group to: improve Habitat Management Program’s tools and approaches with respect to aquaculture management; and, build on successes and current knowledge as well as address challenges and gaps.
The summary report described key presentations and associated discussions relating to successes and challenges for regional Habitat Management Program, Aquaculture Management Directorate and Centre for Integrated Aquaculture Science initiatives in aquaculture. It also described workshop discussion on development and improvement of the Aquaculture Management Framework, which resulted in: identification of administrative action items; and, summary of priority approach issues. The summary report helped facilitate further discussions in development of aquaculture management.
International Review of Marine Finfish Aquaculture Benthic Fish Habitat Monitoring Programs | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Habitat Protection Division
The purpose of the study was to assist the Habitat Protection Division and the Finfish Aquaculture Fish Habitat Committee in updating the existing Newfoundland & Labrador Region Finfish Aquaculture Fish Habitat Monitoring Program. We reviewed and summarized benthic fish habitat monitoring methodology associated with multi-jurisdictional marine finfish aquaculture operations. The focus was on operations over hard bottom substrates, but protocols associated with soft substrates were also considered. This work investigated Canadian regions (i.e., Newfoundland & Labrador Region, Pacific Region and Maritimes Region) and various international locations (i.e., Scotland; Norway; Maine, United States; and Southern Australia, Australia).
Results of the investigation included:
- Identification of regulations, administrative tools or other approaches used to manage potential fish and fish habitat impacts from aquaculture facilities;
- Identification of mitigative measures, tools and practices being implemented;
- Identification of tools or methods used to predict potential fish and fish habitat impacts from the operation of marine finfish aquaculture facilities;
- Description of common and diverging fish habitat monitoring approaches among jurisdictions; and,
- Summary of the main components of each monitoring program:
- Purpose (i.e., regulatory versus proactive);
- Prediction tool or method;
- Timing of data collection;
- Spatial sample design;
- Sampling intensity;
- Sampling methods and tools;
- Ecological components;
- Biological indicators;
- Thresholds and criteria; and,
- Mitigative and management measures or tools.
Download the full report, Review of Marine Finfish Aquaculture Benthic Fish Habitat Monitoring Programs, in PDF format. A special thank you is extended to Fisheries & Oceans Canada for permission to post this report.
Review of Aquatic Animal Health Activities at Fisheries & Oceans Canada |Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Biotechnology and Aquatic Animal Health Science (Aquaculture Science Branch)
Analysis of Great Lakes Public Health Unit Information for the State of the Great Lakes Advisories Sub-indicator | Environment and Climate Change Canada: Great Lakes Ecosystem Management
Glynn implemented the pilot State of the Great Lakes Beach Advisories reporting model. This is a Microsoft Excel model.
Glynn revised the model organization and calculations, and populated it with Ontario Public Health information to characterize and update the Great Lakes Beach Advisories Sub-indicator for the Canadian side of the Great Lakes.
Glynn prepared analysis and reports on each Canadian Great Lakes (Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Lake Huron and Lake Superior) as well as the Canadian Great Lakes as a whole. The pilot model will allow for more robust assessment of Canadian Great Lakes beaches, including 10-year trend assessments, and information produced will be reported through the 2020 State of the Great Lakes binational reports.
Improving the Approach to Track and Report on Recreational Beach Water Quality Health Through a Science-based Indicator | Environment and Climate Change Canada: Great Lakes Ecosystem Management
Glynn conducted an international jurisdictional review of recreational beach water quality health indicators (e.g., Canada, Ontario, United States, Europe and Australia). He summarized this information and compared it to the indicator used in the Canadian side of the Great Lakes and analyzed the potential for proposing simplified metrics for a science-based health indicator report (mainly based on E. coli concentrations).
Glynn prepared a 76-page report on the jurisdictional review that discussed: the state of the Canadian and U.S. Great Lakes Beach Advisories Sub-indicator; and, beach water quality assessment approaches in Canada (nationally and Ontario), United States (nationally, Great Lakes states, other locations), and internationally (World Health Organization, European Union, Australia). He provided 11 recommendations on: annual status, trends, and standards; data sources; sampling and other methods; and, graphics used for reporting.
Glynn analyzed a large dataset of new and historical water quality and beach advisory data, which included comparing it to recent changes in provincial water quality guidelines. This work involved extracting data received from Public Health Units across Ontario, consolidating the information into a master Excel spreadsheet, and displaying the data with tables and graphs. The dataset included data from 12 Public Health Units, nearly 200 beaches per year, the swimming seasons from 10 years, and sampling results from monitoring frequencies ranging from daily to monthly. Glynn also developed pivot tables (Microsoft Excel) to assist in understanding, analyzing and displaying the data. The pivot tables allowed users to easily summarize the data by year, lake, Public Health Unit and beach.
Glynn provided a 23-page draft indicator report on two subsets of the data for Canadian beaches on the Great Lakes: all beaches from 2010; and, all beaches from the jurisdiction of one Public Health Unit from 2010 to 2019. This included assessing status for each data subset, assessing the trend (for the 10-year subset), and exploring better ways to graphically report the results.
Glynn updated a 19-page Standard Operating Procedure to ensure ECCC staff know how to: organize and integrate new data as it becomes available; work with the master spreadsheet; and, update draft sub-indicator reports over future reporting cycles.
Development of a Management Framework for the Western Lake Ontario Land-to-Lake Initiative | Environment and Climate Change Canada: Great Lakes Ecosystem Management
Glynn reviewed documentation detailing workshops and recent progress towards developing a partnership initiative amongst federal, provincial, regional and municipal governments to assist in work to promote water quality and ecosystem objectives in the western region of Lake Ontario. He conducted a jurisdictional review of collaborative initiatives to describe best practices and lessons learned to promote collaborative working relationships. Glynn conducted interviews with key stakeholders who have expressed interest in participating in an Advisory Committee to manage this initiative. Further liaison with stakeholders was also conducted to gain their perspectives, understand their priorities, and learn about relevant initiatives.
The goals were to gain perspective from these reviews and interviews to develop and build consensus for:
- A Terms of Reference/Management Framework for the partnership to work together; and,
- A Demonstration Project to demonstrate and refine the partnership.
The final deliverable was a report that described the Terms of Reference/Management Frameworks, as well as the proposed Demonstration Project and related tasks and timing to implement it.
Assessment of Wastewater Treatment for the Canadian Side of the Great Lakes, Ontario | Environment and Climate Change Canada: Great Lakes National Program Office
Glynn Gomes conducted research, providing an overview of key issues, and discussing current or proposed solutions to minimize or mitigate impacts. The focus was on combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sewer bypasses, which contribute to untreated or inadequately treated sewage into the Great Lakes. Other inadequately treated effluent issues include those relating to phosphorus, and other contaminants. The work also included review of federal and provincial data on effluent from municipal sewage treatment facilities. Glynn completed a jurisdictional review of current instruments to deal with these issues, such as federal, provincial and multi-jurisdictional legislation, regulations, programs, funding and other instruments. He also described options to mitigate environmental impacts of CSOs and sewer bypasses in Ontario and in the Great Lakes basin. Finally, he prepared a report detailing the findings.
Great Lakes Citizen Science – Baseline Engagement Study | Environment and Climate Change Canada: Great Lakes Ecosystem Management
Glynn Gomes analyzed the current level of level of public engagement in citizen science programs throughout the Canadian side of the Great Lakes Basin. This provided baseline information on these programs to help Environment and Climate Change Canada to support Government of Canada’s commitment under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) to facilitate public participation in activities that help achieve GLWQA objectives. He reviewed over 150 potential programs. He also conducted a consultation of key organizations leading citizen science programs to collect information on the scale and scope of their programs. Glynn summarized data on 28 programs.
Deliverables included a 32-page report, with data represented in tables, graphs and maps, plus an Inventory of Citizen Science Programs in Microsoft Excel format.
Climate Change and Adaptation in the Great Lakes | International Joint Commission
The project team assessed how Canadian and United States jurisdictions are able to address potential climate change impacts on water quality in the Great Lakes watershed. This involved conducting a governmental jurisdictional analysis, gap analysis, and analysis of other non-governmental roles. The focus was on what can be done under the current regulatory regime in Canada and the United States, without having to wait for new legislation to be developed.
Glynn assisted in the identification of relevant contacts in the Canadian and United States jurisdictions, conducted interviews to collect information and perspective, and provided a review/quality control function for the gap analysis. He was also involved in identifying relevant players for the non-governmental analysis, as well as conducting some of the related interviews and analysis.
The final deliverable was a 61-page report (plus appendix). Glynn provided substantial input into the drafting and development of Chapter 4: Other Actors and Sectors – The Role of Local Governments, Quasi-government Organizations, Tribes, Métis, First Nations, and Others.
This project was done under subcontract to the The Innovolve Group.
Follow-up Program for the Keeyask Hydroelectric Generation Project | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Fisheries Protection Program
Glynn Gomes helped Fisheries & Oceans Canada, the only Responsible Authority under the (former) Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, to develop a Follow-up Program for construction and operation phases of a hydro-electric generation project (Keeyask Generation Project) on the Nelson River in Manitoba (Canada). The purpose of the Follow-up Program is to: identify verification activities (e.g., monitoring) needed to confirm predictions of project impacts; determine how effective mitigation measures applied are; assess monitoring results; and, identify adaptive management approaches that may be needed to address unanticipated adverse impacts.
Glynn conducted the project in two stages. In the first stage, Glynn reviewed various Keeyask Generation Project documentation and support material to describe categories of concern/Valued Ecosystem Components, impacts predicted by the environmental assessment, proponent commitments, regulatory requirements, monitoring and reporting requirements, and agencies to which the Proponent must report to develop the Follow-up Program. Once the draft Follow-up Program was developed, Glynn conducted a consultation of federal agencies (including Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Major Projects Management Office, Transport Canada, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency and Health Canada) to solicit feedback on the Follow-up Program. Glynn incorporated these comments into the draft Follow-up Program. He also provided recommendations on next steps needed to further refine both the design and implementation of the Follow-up Program.
The final deliverable was an 86-page report describing the Follow-up Program.
Climate Change and Water Quality in the Great Lakes Basin | Environment Canada: Great Lakes Issue Management and Reporting Section
Gomes Consulting Enterprises Ltd. researched recent information to help Environment Canada to develop perspective on climate change impacts to the Canadian Great Lakes basin ecosystem, and to help guide future work projects. The primary focus of the study was on how projected climate change is expected to affect water quality in the Canadian side of the Great Lakes basin. The study also considered relevant information from the United States side of the Basin as well as other areas. The investigation provided an overview of the issues associated with the following anticipated climate change scenarios:
- Increased air temperature
- Increased precipitation
- Changes in wind
- Increased water temperature
- Water level changes
- Water movement changes (flow and circulation)
We investigated how various changes in water quality could result, either directly or indirectly, from these projected climate changes. This included identifying which of the 10 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (2012) Annexes were associated with each water quality impact. This was done to assist Annex leads to quickly identify which sections of the report were applicable to their management focus. Where possible, actual observed climate trends or changes were compared to projected climate change impacts. Summaries of the status of various water quality indicators were also provided. A gap analysis was done to identify gaps in climate change data and research.
In addition to the 57-page report, we also prepared a fact sheet, and an electronic (Microsoft Excel) spreadsheet that contained a searchable inventory of climate change research and data for the Great Lakes basin.
Lake Ontario Nutrients Assessment and Information Gap Analysis | Environment Canada: Great Lakes Issue Management and Reporting Section
Gomes Consulting Enterprises Ltd. was part of an associate’s (Ehl Harrison Consultants Inc.’s) team that assisted Environment Canada in characterizing nutrient issues in the Canadian side of Lake Ontario. We reviewed recent reports and data to describe nutrient-related aquatic research and water quality monitoring activities, and associated results. These included findings related to phosphorous, algae, dissolved oxygen, and ecosystem impacts on aquatic habitats and species (especially, fish communities). Research results were grouped into various categories (e.g., program type, including Lakewide Management Plans, Remedial Action Plans and others; duration of activities; jurisdiction responsibility; type of chemical; and, subject area) to assist decision-makers to focus on activities of interest. We also assessed information gaps and science/monitoring priorities for the lake. The work was done to define nutrient-related science research priorities and to help achieve objectives of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (2012).
We provided strategic recommendations to assist in addressing current pressures impacting Lake Ontario’s aquatic environment. These recommendations were associated with: phosphorus and nitrogen; total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus; Dreissenid mussels; spatial and temporal watershed characterization; climate change; inter-agency coordination; and, other management initiatives.
The final deliverables included an 80-page report, a PowerPoint presentation, and an annotated bibliography.
Canadian 2010 Chemical Milestones Coordination for Lake Superior Basin (2 Projects) | Environment Canada: Environmental Stewardship Branch (Environmental Protection Operations)
Glynn Gomes took on responsibilities as Canadian Co-chair (first project) for the Chemical Committee and assisted the U.S. Co-chair in updating the Lake Superior Basin 2010 Milestone Report, which assesses the progress of the Lake Superior Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) in reducing releases of toxic chemicals. The basin is subject to numerous environmental stresses as a result of various socio-economic activities. The Chemical Committee is composed of members from various institutions from Canada and the United States. He assisted both with coordination of Committee activities, and drafting and editing various sections of the report. An inventory of emissions is required every five years so that it can be compared to the 1990 baseline emissions. This forms the basis for the 2010 LaMP Milestones report. Glynn analyzed the binational contaminants inventory for trends and gaps focusing on the Canadian perspective, and reviewed all sections (both Canadian and U.S.) in the developing report. This included conducting critical review of information prepared by Committee members, and the Canadian inventory engineering consultant. He also liaised with government representatives to collect other information and perspective on LaMP-related activities and inventories.
One of the components of Glynn’s work was to investigate actions or accomplishments associated with reductions, relating to chemicals of concern in the Lake Superior Basin. Specific categories for these actions and accomplishments included: Overall Reductions; Fuel Combustion; Landfills, Trash Burning and Incineration; Metals and Mining; Pesticide Inventory; PCB Inventory; and, Emerging Chemicals. His work focused on the Canadian side and federal, provincial, and First Nations and Métis aspects. He developed a comprehensive table that noted whether each activity supported reduction or inventory of chemicals. The table also described whether each activity was associated with:
- A Direct Result of the LaMP;
- Other Projects Aligned with LaMP Goals; or,
- Regulations, Policies or Other Instruments Aligned with LaMP Goals.
The format of this table was then used as a template by the United States Chemical Committee members to input information related to similar programs in their jurisdictions. The tables were also accompanied by a section on transboundary initiatives. This review of activities, policies, regulations and other instruments is included in Appendix B to the report.
For the second project, we did not take on the role of the Canadian Co-chair but, otherwise, duties were similar to the first project. We continued assisting the United States Co-chair with similar project activities. These included coordinating input required from various agencies (focusing on the Canadian components), and integrating and evaluating the received input in order to progress the report, through a series of transboundary committee/agency reviews, to a draft for public review.
The final report is 118 pages long, plus appendices. Download Lake Superior Lakewide Management Plan: 1990-2010 Critical Chemical Reduction Milestones.
Upstream / Downstream Water Monitoring of Organic Pollutants and Mercury in the St. Clair – Detroit River Corridor | Environment Canada: Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Division
Glynn Gomes reviewed and analyzed two contaminants level surveys: 2001 to 2004 St. Clair – Detroit River Corridor Study; and, 2006 Persistent Organic Pollutants study that included surveys of sites in the St. Clair – Detroit River Corridor as well as sites in tributaries flowing into the Corridor. We identified contaminants of concern, characterized upstream/downstream and concentration differences between the United States and Canada. We also researched and described compliance with water quality guidelines, values, criteria or objectives (i.e., Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment, and Ontario Ministry of the Environment). Contaminants considered included organochlorine substances, dioxin-like substances, other organics and mercury.
Updated Analysis of Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy Level II Substances for Environment Canada | Environment Canada: Environmental Protection Branch
The Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy is a Canada-United States strategy that works to reduce or virtually eliminate persistent, especially toxic, substances from the Great Lakes Basin. We analyzed Level II priority contaminants of the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy for Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Branch (Downsview). We clarified sources, persistence and environmental fate, long-range transport potential, exposure pathways, impacts to biota (including potential for bioaccumulation) and human health effects, and available information on associated risk management associated with these environmental contaminants, while conducting information gap analysis and providing management recommendations. The GLBTS Level II substances investigated include metals, persistent organic pollutants and pesticides, and PAHs.
Environment Canada researchers and managers were contacted to obtain data on concentration of these substances in environmental media in the Great Lakes Basin. Several other activities were also conducted to complete this project, including: literature search and review, and internet research; and, investigation and quantification of industry sector sources as described in the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) and United States Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) databases. In addition to NPRI and TRI data, unpublished documents or data were provided by contacts as part of the information collected.
The report produced, Updated Analysis of Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy Level II Substances, was a 71-page document that was supported by a 4-page summary spreadsheet and an information/data CD. The result was a comprehensive information package that was easy for Environment Canada managers and others to follow and find relevant information.
Cleaning Up Our Waterways: The Don River and Central Waterfront Project | City of Toronto
As part of the Ehl Harrison Consulting Inc.’s team, Glynn was involved in an extensive multi-year stakeholder consultation program to collect and analyze perspective, document issues, and inform Agencies, City Councillors, stakeholders and the public about the City’s sewer infrastructure project to improve water quality in the Don River and Central Waterfront of Toronto. The work supported the environmental assessment for this project to improve the management of the water resources in the city. Glynn collected, analyzed and summarized information from stakeholder engagement into many reports. He provided support for various consultation and communication activities, including stakeholder liaison.
Organic Contamination in Stormwater Ponds | Master of Science Research
Download Glynn’s M.Sc. research paper in PDF format.
Marine and Coastal Zone Management
Draft a Terms of Reference for a Consultancy to Reduce Plastic Waste in Small Island Developing States | International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Global Marine and Polar Programme
Glynn prepared draft terms of reference for a proposed consultancy for conducting a policy analysis and developing policy recommendations to reduce plastic waste in small island developing states in the Caribbean and Pacific Regions.
Included in the above, Glynn prepared an assessment of key components needed for policy scoping and gap analysis for the plastics waste reduction initiative encompassing islands in these two regions.
Assessment of the 2016 Draft Nunavut Land Use Plan Against Operational Guidance for Identifying ‘Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures’ in Canada’s Marine Environment | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Oceans and Sciences Sector
Fisheries & Oceans Canada (DFO) and Environment & Climate Change Canada have a mandate to conserve 10 percent of Canada’s marine and coastal areas by 2020. As of December 2017, Canada has announced it has achieved 7.53 percent protection of the marine and coastal areas.
Glynn Gomes assessed the Draft Nunavut Land Use Plan (NLUP) to determine how much area the prohibitions contained therein would contribute to Canada’s marine and coastal area protection goal if the Draft NLUP were finalized in its current state. Glynn reviewed these prohibitions and compared them to five criteria in DFO’s operational guidance, which describe how to determine the amount of area being protected in Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures. This resulted in an estimate of the area the Draft NLUP would contribute to Canada’s marine and coastal area protection goal.
The final report provided rationale for the estimated area contribution. In addition, there were two appendices. The first provided a summary of legislation relevant to the Draft NLUP or the OEABCM criteria. The second appendix included a map depicting the locations and area contributions of the Draft NLUP to marine protection. The map was produced by DFO’s in-house GIS expert, with direction from Glynn.
Coastal Zone and Estuary Protection | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Marine Ecosystems Conservation Branch
Major findings included:
- There are many different definitions of the coastal zone. Generally, the coastal zone extends from the three-mile territorial limit to an inland boundary. This boundary may be political, functional or a mixture of both. Many programs break apart the coastal zone into tiers, each with a different focus.
- The coastal zones are generally not administrated as one complete unit. They are typically separated into local and state authorities, with a lead agency overseeing all coastal zone management. The coastal zone may also be separated into regional zones that are individually managed by different administrative bodies.
- Local-state administrative relationships are widely used. State approval and oversight are needed for local programs.
- Special area designations, especially Special Area Management Plans (SAMPs) and others such as Geographical Areas of Particular Concern, wildlife refuges, and areas of environmental concern, are widely used to protect sensitive ecological areas. This is especially true in areas vulnerable to human activities.
- Co-ordination tools are essential to enable the various agencies to work together. These tools include joint state-federal permit applications, interagency or pre-application meetings, and Memoranda of Agreements. Information programs including mapping and resource inventory are also used extensively.
- Consistency between state and federal agencies is an essential part of the Coastal Zone Management Programs. The lead agency in each state reviews federal programs to ensure potential conflicts are resolved.
The investigation also described several case studies with successful coastal zone management initiatives. The report summarized these programs in simple language, making use of a tabular format to describe each state program, followed by an overall summary section. The work was conducted to provide assistance to decision-makers at Fisheries & Oceans Canada in planning a national framework for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Canada.
Jacques Cousteau Article | John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Glynn Gomes wrote this biography of Jacques Cousteau. Download the full article on Jacques Cousteau in PDF format as it appears in John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.’s Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. A special thank you is extended to John Wiley & Sons Ltd. for permission to post this article.
Glynn Gomes has conducted several aquaculture projects. See the Aquaculture section above.
Management, Administration, & Other Studies
Administration of the New Arctic Region | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Oceans and Sciences Sector
Fisheries & Oceans Canada (DFO) and the Canadian Coast Guard, along with the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami announced, in October 2018, the creation of Arctic Regions to be developed with Indigenous and Northern partners. Glynn Gomes assisted DFO in developing a (draft) report to inform DFO of issues to be considered as it implements its new Arctic Region. The report discussed DFO’s engagement with Indigenous, government, industry and other partners since the announcement, feedback received, considerations for science administration and tracking, an overview of DFO programs, and other issues relevant to administration of the new Arctic Region.
Reports on the Status of the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan in Central & Arctic Region (two projects) | Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Habitat Management Program
Glynn Gomes assisted DFO by preparing annual reports for two consecutive years on the status of the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan (FCSAP) program in Central & Arctic Region in support of program reporting requirements to National Headquarters. These projects involved liaising with Department staff to collect, collate and analyze information, and/or identify science issues, staffing/training, and program management priorities. In the first year, we also assisted Central & Arctic Region in doing mid-term reporting, as well as prepared a regional annual summary report that described status and highlighted priority issues and recommendations for managing the FCSAP program in Central & Arctic Region (i.e., a report to assist in program management). In addition to the next annual report, in the second year, we prepared a summary of program challenges and recommendations to assist with the FCSAP Expert Support Role program in Central & Arctic Region.
Scan of Current and Emerging Environmental, Social, Cultural and Economic Issues across Canada's North | Environment Canada: Northern Ecosystem Initiative
Download the final report in English or French in PDF format.
A special thank you is extended to Environment Canada for permission to post this report. This report, Scan of Current and Emerging Environmental, Social, Cultural and Economic Issues across Canada’s North, is © Environment Canada, 2006.
Atmospheric Change and Biodiversity in the Toronto-Niagara Region | Environment Canada: Adaptation and Impacts Research Group
While employed at Environment Canada, Glynn Gomes researched and produced a report that described the atmospheric change impacts to the Toronto-Niagara Region for Environment Canada, Adaptation and Impacts Research Group (Downsview). He assessed, at the regional scale, how potential atmospheric change may impact biodiversity in the Toronto-Niagara Region. The report was organized into sections discussing: climate change impacts, including changes to water levels; effects of increased ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) from stratospheric ozone depletion; effects of acid deposition; and, effects of air pollutants. This work involved a traditional literature search to identify information to complete the report.
Chemical Substances Management
Part 1 of 2: Numerous Market/Socio-economic/ Background Studies Dealing with Chemical Substances in Industry | Canadian Federal Government
Glynn Gomes worked on 18 projects that dealt with use or impact of chemical substances found in commercial sector or produced by industry. Many of these projects related to Canada’s Chemicals Management Plan. He conducted market and product research in a wide variety of industrial sectors. This included:
Conducting jurisdictional review (e.g., review of legislation, regulations, policies, management plans, emergency procedures, etc.) to manage chemical substances;
- Identifying and quantifying substances imported into, exported from, manufactured in or distributed through Canada;
- Conducting interviews and developing surveys; and,
- Writing documentation.
Projects were done under subcontract to various associates. See the list of projects and sectors in Part 2 (below) and Glynn’s CV for more details.
Part 2 of 2: Numerous Market/Socio-economic/ Background Studies Dealing with Chemical Substances in Industry | Canadian Federal Government
Glynn Gomes’ projects dealing with chemical substances in industry include:
- Evaluating Chemicals in Textile Products in the North American Market
- Technical Background Study of Lead Sheeting in the Construction Sector
- Technical Background Study of Electronic and Electrical Equipment Sector;
- Technical and Socio-economic Study on Personal Care, Household, and Automotive Aftermarket Products;
- Collection and Analysis of Import, Manufacture and Industrial Use Information on Certain Substances in the Chemicals Management Plan
- Collection and Analysis of Import, Manufacture and Industrial Use Information on Certain Substances in the Chemicals Management Plan (four projects; numerous substances/ and industrial sectors)
- Background Study and Use Pattern for the Cleaning Products Sector
- Clarification of the Volatile Organ Carbon Exemption Process Relating to Tert-Butyl Acetate (t-BAC)
- Inventory Update for Release of Selected Toxic Substances from Secondary Metal Production in Ontario
- Background Study of Potential Impacts Associated with Changes to Corrosivity Criteria of Hazardous Wastes and Hazardous Recycling Materials
- Follow-up Study on the Technical and Socio-economic Aspects Related to the Management of Used Crankcase Oil (UCO) in Canada
- Background Study of Use Patterns and Economics of 2-Ethoxyethanol
- Background Study on the Technical and Socio-economic Aspects Related to the Management of Waste Crankcase Oil (WCO) in Canada
- Inventory of and Technical Study on Pentachlorobenzene (QCB) and Tetrachlorobenzenes (TeCB)
- Tracking Implementation of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Management Plan for NOx and VOCs
Sectors included: textiles, construction, electronic and electrical equipment, personal care, household, automotive aftermarket products, adhesives & sealants, cleaning products, personal care products, plastics, rubber, secondary metals production, hazardous wastes/recycling materials, and waste/used oil.
Projects were done under subcontract to various associates. See Part 1 (above) and Glynn’s CV for more details.
Other Socio-economic Studies
Quality Assurance Program Review, Capacity Assessment and Market Needs Assessment | Environment Canada: Environmental Standards and Reference Materials
Glynn Gomes conducted several consultations for Environmental Standards and Reference Materials. The work involved conducting information telephone and in-person interviews to collect data, other information or perspective. These interviews were supported by emailed or faxed questionnaires. Work with ESRM required the design and distribution of four comprehensive questionnaires. Extensive qualitative and quantitative analyses of survey response data were conducted to summarize results and provide recommendations for action (e.g. for future interlaboratory studies, etc.). Deliverables included four reports that detailed:
- Laboratory capabilities and program details of laboratories and organizations that contribute analytical data to a federal government program (i.e., Northern Contaminants Program). This report profiled the organizations, their areas of expertise, analytical capabilities, services provided and their involvement in Quality Assurance programs.
- Availability and suitability of external national and international Quality Assurance programs pertinent to the Northern Contaminants Program. This report also recommended specific Quality Assurance programs for particular analytical programs and described the need for development of a new Quality Assurance program.
- Demand for a proposed organic interlaboratory Quality Assurance program from Environment Canada’s regional and research laboratories, and assessed specific Quality Assurance elements that would need to be addressed by such a program.
- Environment Standards and Reference Materials’ customer needs (i.e., the needs of distributors of ESRM’s products such as “Reference Materials” and “Certified Reference Materials”). This involved contacting these customers (world-wide) and asking them what they needed from Environment Canada in order to facilitate sales of ESRM’s products. This report assisted ESRM maximize sales and cost recovery for its products.
Three Gorges Dam
Glynn Gomes researched and prepared an information brief describing socio-economic impacts associated with the Three Gorges Dam (in China) for a senior Ontario Hydro staff’s business development visit to the region. This work was conducted under subcontract to Hardy Stevenson & Associates Ltd.
Other Socio-economic Research
Glynn Gomes has conducted socio-economic research on several other projects (e.g., road extension, gas pipeline development, water pipeline development, and municipal water use). In addition, many of the other projects we have done have included socio-economic research.
Public Consultation & Communication
We have assisted with numerous public consultation and communications activities for a variety of subjects and audiences. Gomes Consulting Enterprises Ltd. communicates complex concepts to the general public, federal agencies and regulatory authorities, and other types of stakeholders. We understand a variety of technical issues and are familiar with the level of writing required for the general public or more technical audiences. We have written a large number of summary reports of workshops, technical sessions and public meetings. Related work has also included public communications, facilitation and outreach.
In addition, most of our other projects require liaison with various contacts (e.g., government, industry, and others) in the process of researching information or collecting perspective.
Natural Resources Management & Land Use Planning
Oak Ridges Moraine Development and Protection Public Meeting | City of Toronto
We produced a summary of meeting proceedings to discuss development on and protection of the moraine, including expressed comments and questions, to City staff. Issues discussed included: aggregate industry issues; protection of land; urban sprawl and development; legislation; comparison to the Niagara Escarpment Plan; issues associated with land use designations; water and watershed.
For our summary of the public meeting, Toronto’s Position on the Future of the Oak Ridges Moraine, see Attachment 1 (page 33) of Oak Ridges Moraine – Response to Province of Ontario’s Draft Strategy posted on the City of Toronto’s website.
Cleaning Up Our Waterways – The Don River and Central Waterfront Project | City of Toronto
Stakeholder Involvement Plans for Transmission and Distribution Rate Applications to the Ontario Energy Board | Hydro One Networks Inc.
As part of the Haussmann Consulting Inc. consultation and communications team, we assisted in the preparation of summary reports of various meetings. Work was part of a stakeholder involvement program for Hydro One Networks Inc.’s 2006 Distribution Rate Application to the Ontario Energy Board and then, later, for similar stakeholder involvement programs for its 2007/2008 Transmission Rate Application and 2008 Electricity Distribution Rate Application. Some of this subject matter was highly technical, yet had to be summarized for a more general audience.
Electricity Sector Restructuring | Ontario Energy Board
As part of Hardy Stevenson & Associates’ team, Glynn Gomes organized several facilitated internal workshops and meetings (in Sudbury, Kingston and Toronto). He co-ordinated activities among the public consultation project team He also produced summary reports and other associated documentation between the Ontario Energy Board and electrical utilities for the purpose of discussing rates and licensing issues pertaining to electricity sector deregulation.
Public Consultation Services for Long-Term Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facilities at Port Hope and Port Granby, Ontario | Atomic Energy Control Limited
This project involved preparing numerous public workshop and federal agency/responsible authority technical working session summary reports for the Port Hope Area Initiative (Port Hope and Port Granby Projects) for three years as a member of Haussmann Consulting Inc.’s public consultation and communications team. Activities were part of a class environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act for development of long-term, low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Other activities included review of information display panels and other documentation, and staffing of open houses.
Brock Township Landfill Meeting | Region of Durham
As part of Haussmann Consulting Inc.’s team, Glynn prepared a summary report to document the township meeting, which gave local residents an opportunity to voice their questions regarding the Brock Township Landfill.
Leslie Street Road Improvements Class Environmental Assessment | Region of York
Glynn Gomes facilitated a meeting (for Hardy Stevenson & Associates Ltd.) between the Region of York and the local community to inform the public and discuss issues associated with the expansion of Leslie Street between Wellington Street and Mulock Drive in Newmarket, Ontario.
Light Rail Vehicle Projects | Toronto Transit Commission
Glynn assisted Ehl Harrison Consulting Inc. in a public consultation program to inform and seek input from the transit user community and relevant TTC departments regarding introduction of new streetcars (light rail vehicles; LRVs). Input received from a variety of innovative activities (e.g., meetings, public event, focus groups, surveys and an interactive website) was used to guide vehicle design aspects and refine operational policies. This 4-year project built on the project noted below.
The previous project informed the public (at a series of public events) of plans to replace Toronto Transit Commission’s aging fleet of LRVs with new LRVs and introduce improved service by building new dedicated LRV lines, solicited comments on street car design, and analyzed responses to surveys – including several thousand website submissions.
Workshops on the Development of Environmental Performance Standards
These consultations involved three one-and-a-half-day multi-stakeholder workshops in Ottawa/Hull over three consecutive years to review issues related to the development of Environmental Performance Standards for the Base Metals Smelting Sector. As part of Haussmann Consulting Inc.’s Team, Glynn acted as rapporteur, and developed a summary/analysis report of each workshop proceedings.
Sustainable Development Strategy | Indian & Northern Affairs Canada
As part of Resource Fututres International’s team, Glynn Gomes developed a synthesis document that comprehensively integrated First Nations’ concerns expressed during national workshops between Indian and Northern Affairs Canada and 17 First Nation groups across Canada.
VIETPRO 2020 Environmental Training in Vietnam Project | Canadian International Development Agency
Glynn Gomes helped University of Toronto (Institute for Environmental Studies) with organizing, conducting statistical analysis, and summarizing response data from questionnaires filled out by participants of an environmental training course in Vietnam