Earth in a water droplet

Natural Resources Management Project Summaries

 

Aquaculture Management (Finfish and Shellfish)

(1) Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Aquaculture Management Directorate (Policy Regulatory Initiatives)  –  Cooperation on Farmed and Wild Fish Interaction for Canada and United States of America

Glynn Gomes developed a report to support Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s (DFO’s) and the United States Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) collaboration on the management of interactions between farmed and wild fish relating to genetic interactions and pathogen transfer. For more information on DFO’s and NOAA’s regulatory cooperation on marine aquaculture, see the agencies’ Regulatory Cooperation Council Regulatory Partnership Statement and work plan. This project relates to Work Stream B (cooperation on farmed to wild fish interactions) in the work plan. Glynn conducted interviews of key government and industry stakeholders in Canada and the United States to collect information and perspective on relevant issues.

Glynn compared and assessed legislations, regulations, policies and other instruments used to manage genetic, pathogen and pest interactions between farmed and wild fish in Canada and the United States. This included discussion of the following issues:

  • Genetic Interactions – biocontainment, marine mammal interactions, and monitoring programs for genetics issues;

  • Pathogens and Pests – fish health management, monitoring for pathogens and pest issues, and geographical approaches (i.e., siting and area approaches); and,

  • Overall Regulatory Risk Assessment Framework – for potential genetic interactions and potential pathogen transfers.

Glynn considered the feasibility of developing a joint message statement on equivalence of Canadian and American marine net pen aquaculture regulatory programs. He also explored areas for cooperation on escape management and codes of containment to identify potential areas of regulatory alignment on management of farmed and wild fish interactions for senior management consideration at DFO and NOAA.

The final deliverable was an 85-page report (plus two appendices) that focused on the following jurisdictions:

  • Canada – federal, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia; and,

  • United States – federal, and primarily Maine and Washington, but also Hawaii.

(2) Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Habitat Management Directorate –  Administering the Fish Habitat Protection Provisions of the Fisheries Act in Relation to Open-Water Finfish and Shellfish Aquaculture Operations

This project involved conducting a consultation of Habitat Management officials from Fisheries & Oceans Canada (DFO) Regions and National Headquarters, and reviewing documentation provided by these officials. The purpose of the project was to summarize and compare current approaches to administering the fish habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act in relation to new and existing open-water finfish and shellfish aquaculture operations in all DFO Regions (six regions: Pacific, Central & Arctic, Quebec, Gulf, Maritimes, and Newfoundland & Labrador).

The project described the approaches used in each Region to address the following issues:

  • Baseline information requirements for site proposals (i.e., information DFO asks proponents to provide);

  • Decision criteria used to make fish habitat decisions (e.g., siting criteria, show-stoppers, baseline data thresholds, predictive models, etc.);

  • Regulatory tools used to indicate Habitat Management approval and/or impose fish habitat conditions on operators (e.g., federal or provincial licenses, permits, leases, authorizations, letters of advice, operational statements, class assessments, etc.); and,

  • Monitoring protocols and information requirements, and mechanisms used to ensure monitoring is completed (i.e., information DFO requests and how it ensures that it receives the information).

Common practices and those that differ significantly among the Regions were identified. We also conducted an interview process that explored the rationale for noted differences in practices. The study included analysis of how each regional approach linked to respective provincial regulatory processes. Deliverables included: a comprehensive report and slide show summarizing findings. This work expanded on the project described below.

(3) Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Aquaculture Management Directorate –  Administering the Fish Habitat Protection Provisions of the Fisheries Act in Relation to Open-Water Marine Finfish Aquaculture Operations.

This project summarized current approaches in three DFO Regions (Pacific, Maritimes, Newfoundland & Labrador) to administering the fish habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act in relation to new and existing open-water marine finfish aquaculture operations. This was achieved by interviewing and liaising with Habitat Management Program officials from these three DFO Regions and from DFO National Headquarters, and reviewing relevant documentation. The investigation described:

  • Siting criteria (e.g., depth considerations, distance between aquaculture facilities, avoidance of fish habitat or marine resources, and models, GIS or other electronic tools) to avoid negative effects to fish and fish habitat when locating new marine finfish aquaculture facilities;

  • Tools or methods to predict the potential effects to fish and fish habitat (e.g., habitat assessment surveys, monitoring, baseline data collection, DEPOMOD modelling) from new or existing facilities;

  • Mitigation of potential fish habitat effects from new or existing facilities;

  • Fish habitat monitoring requirements (e.g., benthic monitoring, habitat compensation monitoring) for proponents; and,

  • Relevant regulatory and administrative tools (e.g., federal acts, Fisheries Act Section 35 review process, provincial and other instruments).

The work also included an analysis of similarities and rational for differences in practices, including an overview of major socio-economic and ecological differences among the three DFO Regions.

(4) Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Habitat Management Directorate –  Summary Report for the 2007 National Habitat Management Working Group on Aquaculture

This project reported on the engagement of DFO’s National Habitat Management Working Group on Aquaculture, and representatives from Aquaculture Management Directorate and the Centre for Integrated Aquaculture Science, in strategic discussion and work-planning related to Habitat Management Program’s regulatory role in aquaculture. The workshop involved National Headquarters and several DFO Regions: Pacific; Central & Arctic; Maritimes; Gulf; and, Newfoundland & Labrador. Outcomes included the following:

  • Overview of Habitat Management Program’s current knowledge and practices associated with regulatory review of Canadian aquaculture;

  • Identification of gaps and areas requiring improvement of effectiveness, efficiency and coherence of Habitat Management Program regulatory practices; and,

  • A work plan for the Working Group to: improve Habitat Management Program’s tools and approaches with respect to aquaculture management; and, build on successes and current knowledge as well as address challenges and gaps.

The summary report described key presentations and associated discussions relating to successes and challenges for regional Habitat Management Program, Aquaculture Management Directorate and Centre for Integrated Aquaculture Science initiatives in aquaculture. It also described workshop discussion on development and improvement of the Aquaculture Management Framework, which resulted in: identification of administrative action items; and, summary of priority approach issues. The summary report helped facilitate further discussions in development of aquaculture management.

(5) Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Habitat Protection Division International Review of Marine Finfish Aquaculture Benthic Fish Habitat Monitoring Programs

The purpose of the study was to assist the Habitat Protection Division and the Finfish Aquaculture Fish Habitat Committee in updating the existing Newfoundland & Labrador Region Finfish Aquaculture Fish Habitat Monitoring Program. Gomes Consulting Enterprises reviewed and summarized benthic fish habitat monitoring methodology associated with multijurisdictional marine finfish aquaculture operations. The focus was on operations over hard bottom substrates, but protocols associated with soft substrates were also considered. This work investigated Canadian regions (i.e., Newfoundland & Labrador Region, Pacific Region and Maritimes Region) and various international locations (i.e., Scotland; Norway; Maine, United States; and Southern Australia, Australia).

Results of the investigation included:

  • Identification of regulations, administrative tools or other approaches used to manage potential fish and fish habitat impacts from aquaculture facilities;

  • Identification of mitigative measures, tools and practices being implemented;

  • Identification of tools or methods used to predict potential fish and fish habitat impacts from the operation of marine finfish aquaculture facilities;

  • Description of common and diverging fish habitat monitoring approaches among jurisdictions; and,

  • Summary of the main components of each monitoring program:

  1. Purpose (i.e., regulatory versus proactive);

  2. Function;

  3. Prediction tool or method;

  4. Timing of data collection;

  5. Spatial sample design;

  6. Sampling intensity;

  7. Sampling methods and tools;

  8. Ecological components;

  9. Biological indicators;

  10. Thresholds and criteria; and,

  11. Mitigative and management measures or tools.

Download the full report, Review of Marine Finfish Aquaculture Benthic Fish Habitat Monitoring Programs, in PDF format. A special thank you is extended to Fisheries & Oceans Canada for permission to post this report.

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Aquatic Animal Health Activities Review

Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Biotechnology and Aquatic Animal Health Science (Aquaculture Science Branch)  Review of Aquatic Animal Health Activities at Fisheries & Oceans Canada

There have been ongoing challenges associated with: meeting diagnostic and research responsibilities under the Fish Health Protection Regulations (FHPR); and, DFO’s new role under the National Aquatic Animal Health Program (NAAHP). This study responded to a request from DFO’s National Science Directors Committee to review all aquatic animal health diagnostic testing and research activities in all six DFO regions (Pacific, Central & Arctic, Quebec, Gulf, Maritimes, and Newfoundland & Labrador), and to provide background and scope for an internal DFO committee tasked with determining aquatic animal health under the FHPR and NAAHP, as well as other DFO work with an aquatic animal health component. The project clarified all aquatic animal health work conducted within DFO to enable more-integrated delivery of aquatic animal health services. Specifically, the report:

  • Prioritized 62 aquatic animal health activities for the NAAHP. Activities were categorized as low, moderate, high or extreme priorities. Associated human resources were also described. Thirty-three other projects were identified that were not NAAHP priorities;

  • Described future needs (e.g., anticipated activities, staffing and laboratory needs) associated with the three core National Aquatic Animal Health Laboratory System laboratories that provide diagnostics, research, scientific advice and emergency response to support the NAAHP: Pacific Region – Pacific Biological Station; Central & Arctic Region – Freshwater Institute; and, Gulf Region – Gulf Fisheries Centre; and,

  • Summarized existing pressures or issues affecting priority activities (including human resources and operating expenditures), outlined the governance structure of aquatic animal health activities, and identified key information gaps and next steps.

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Coastal Zone Management

Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Marine Ecosystems Conservation Branch  Coastal Zone and Esturary Protection

We conducted a review of Integrated Coastal Zone Management that included investigation of 29 of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA, in the United States) National Coastal Zone Management programs, describing how these programs were developed and managed. The work includes reviews of coastal zone management programs from states that border the Gulf of Mexico (e.g. Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi), Hawaii, and United States territories around the world, including islands in the Pacific and Caribbean (e.g. U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and Northern Mariana Islands). This 61-page report also included review of programs for other marine coastal states, and states that have freshwater coastal zones that border on the Great Lakes (e.g., Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and New York). The study focused on describing management approaches; how consistency was achieved amongst federal/state/local agencies (i.e., inter-jurisdictional management); information sharing; conflict resolution strategies; and, lessons learned.

Major findings included:

  • There are many different definitions of the coastal zone. Generally, the coastal zone extends from the three-mile territorial limit to an inland boundary. This boundary may be political, functional or a mixture of both. Many programs break apart the coastal zone into tiers, each with a different focus.

  • The coastal zones are generally not administrated as one complete unit. They are typically separated into local and state authorities, with a lead agency overseeing all coastal zone management. The coastal zone may also be separated into regional zones that are individually managed by different administrative bodies.

  • Local-state administrative relationships are widely used. State approval and oversight are needed for local programs.

  •  Special area designations, especially Special Area Management Plans (SAMPs) and others such as Geographical Areas of Particular Concern, wildlife refuges, and areas of environmental concern, are widely used to protect sensitive ecological areas. This is especially true in areas vulnerable to human activities.

  •  Co-ordination tools are essential to enable the various agencies to work together. These tools include joint state-federal permit applications, interagency or pre-application meetings, and Memoranda of Agreements. Information programs including mapping and resource inventory are also used extensively.

  • Consistency between state and federal agencies is an essential part of the Coastal Zone Management Programs. The lead agency in each state reviews federal programs to ensure potential conflicts are resolved.  

The investigation also described several case studies with successful coastal zone management initiatives. The report summarized these programs in simple language, making use of a tabular format to describe each state program, followed by an overall summary section. The work was conducted to provide assistance to decision-makers at Fisheries & Oceans Canada in planning a national framework for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Canada.

Download the full report from the Fisheries & Oceans Canada website in PDF format.

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Annual and Other Reporting (Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan)

Fisheries & Oceans Canada: Habitat Management Program  Reports on the Status of the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan in Central & Arctic Region (two projects)

Gomes Consulting Enterprises assisted DFO by preparing annual reports for two consecutive years on the status of the Contaminated Sites Action Plan (FCSAP) program in Central & Arctic Region in support of program reporting requirements to National Headquarters. These projects involved liaising with Department staff to collect, collate and analyze information, and/or identify science issues, staffing/training, and program management priorities. In the first year, we also assisted Central & Arctic Region in doing mid-term reporting, as well as prepared a regional annual summary report that described status and highlighted priority issues and recommendations for managing the FCSAP program in Central & Arctic Region (i.e., a report to assist in program management). In addition to the annual report, in the second year, we prepared a summary of program challenges and recommendations to assist with the FCSAP Expert Support Role program in C&A Region.

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Priority Setting and Gap Analysis for Science Research

Fisheries & Oceans Canada (Fish Habitat Management Branch): Science Priority Setting and Gap Analysis Projects (two projects)

Gomes Consulting Enterprises conducted two related projects for Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Fish Habitat Management Branch. For the first project, we conducted a Science Priority Setting Exercise for the Branch’s science research program. The project required effective communication with staff scientist to complete project objectives. We surveyed and interviewed Branch biologists across Ontario to identify science research priorities, analyzed results and developed recommendations for focus of science studies.

For the Follow-up Project, we identified information availability either already within the Branch or in readily-accessible documents to address the identified research and information needs. We reviewed guideline documents, reference sources and investigated other sources of information, as well as identified gaps in information availability for required research.

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Stormwater Management (Mitigation Measures)

Fisheries & Oceans Canada (Fish Habitat Management Branch) and Environment Canada (Great Lakes and Corporate Affairs Branch): Analysis of Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures Associated with Stormwater Management Facilities

Gomes Consulting Enterprises conducted a stormwater pond study for Fisheries & Oceans Canada and Environment Canada. We identified, analyzed and ranked the effectiveness of stormwater pond mitigation measures to address temperature, groundwater quality and stream morphological impacts. The impacts related to Sections 35 (which deals with physical fish habitat alterations) and 36 (which deals with introduction of deleterious substances) of the Canadian Fisheries Act. We also estimated relative cost associated with these mitigation measures, and identified and described regulatory monitoring requirements. We summarized biotic communities utilizing stormwater pond facilities, and reviewed mitigation measures and follow-up monitoring implemented for Southern Ontario stormwater management projects. The work involved liaising with government representatives and specialists in the field, as well as reviewing supplied documents and conducting various literature searches. The final deliverable was a 74-page report entitled, Effectiveness of Environmental Mitigation Measures Associated with Stormwater Management Facilities.

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Watershed Management

(1) Environment Canada: Great Lakes Section 2010 Lake Superior Basin Chemical Milestones Coordination (two projects)

Gomes Consulting Enterprises took on responsibilities as Canadian Co-chair (first project) for the Chemical Committee and assisted the U.S. Co-chair in updating the Lake Superior Basin 2010 Milestone Report, which assesses the progress of the Lake Superior Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) in reducing releases of toxic chemicals. The basin is subject to numerous environmental stresses as a result of various socio-economic activities. The Chemical Committee is composed of members from various institutions from Canada and the United States. We assisted both with coordination of Committee activities, and drafting and editing various sections of the report. An inventory of emissions is required every five years so that it can be compared to the 1990 baseline emissions. This forms the basis for the 2010 LaMP Milestones report. We analyzed the binational contaminants inventory for trends and gaps focusing on the Canadian perspective, and reviewed all sections (both Canadian and U.S.) in the developing report. This included conducting critical review of information prepared by Committee members, and the Canadian inventory engineering consultant. We also liaised with government representatives to collect other information and perspective on LaMP-related activities and inventories.

One of the components of our work was to investigate actions or accomplishments associated with reductions, relating to chemicals of concern in the Lake Superior Basin. Specific categories for these actions and accomplishments included: Overall Reductions; Fuel Combustion; Landfills, Trash Burning and Incineration; Metals and Mining; Pesticide Inventory; PCB Inventory; and, Emerging Chemicals. Our work focused on the Canadian side and federal, provincial, and First Nations and Métis aspects. We developed a comprehensive table that noted whether each activity supported reduction or inventory of chemicals. The table also described whether each activity was associated with:

  • A Direct Result of the LaMP;
  • Other Projects Aligned with LaMP Goals; or,
  • Regulations, Policies or Other Instruments Aligned with LaMP Goals.

The format of this table was then used as a template by the United States Chemical Committee members to input information related to similar programs in their jurisdictions. The tables were also accompanied by a section on transboundary initiatives. This review of activities, policies, regulations and other instruments is included in Appendix B to the report.

For the second project, we did not take on the role of the Canadian Co-chair but, otherwise, duties were similar to the first project. We continued assisting the United States Co-chair with similar project activities. These included coordinating input required from various agencies (focusing on the Canadian components), and integrating and evaluating the received input in order to progress the report, through a series of transboundary committee/agency reviews, to a draft for public review.

Download Lake Superior Lakewide Management Plan: 1990-2010 Critical Chemical Reduction Milestones (main body and appendices A through F) from the United States Environmental Protection agency website in PDF format.

(2) Environment Canada: Climate Change and Water Quality in the Great Lakes Basin  

Gomes Consulting Enterprises Ltd. researched recent information to help Environment Canada to develop perspective on climate change impacts to the Canadian Great Lakes basin ecosystem, and to help guide future work projects. The primary focus of the study was on how projected climate change is expected to affect water quality in the Canadian side of the Great Lakes basin. The study also considered relevant information from the United States side of the Basin as well as other areas. The investigation provided an overview of the issues associated with the following anticipated climate change scenarios:

  • Increased air temperature
  • Increased precipitation
  • Changes in wind
  • Increased water temperature
  • Water level changes
  • Water movement changes (flow and circulation)

We investigated how various changes in water quality could result, either directly or indirectly, from these projected climate changes. This included identifying which of the 10 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (2012) Annexes were associated with each water quality impact. This was done to assist Annex leads to quickly identify which sections of the report were applicable to their management focus. Where possible, actual observed climate trends or changes were compared to projected climate change impacts. Summaries of the status of various water quality indicators were also provided. A gap analysis was done to identify gaps in climate change data and research.

In addition to the 57-page report, we also prepared a fact sheet, and an electronic (Microsoft Excel) spreadsheet that contained a searchable inventory of climate change research and data for the Great Lakes basin.

(3) International Joint Commission (subcontracted under The Innovolve Group) – Climate Change and Adaptation in the Great Lakes

The project team assessed how Canadian and United States jurisdictions are able to address potential climate change impacts on water quality in the Great Lakes watershed. This involved conducting a governmental jurisdictional analysis, gap analysis, and analysis of other non-governmental roles. The focus was on what can be done under the current regulatory regime in Canada and the United States, without needing to wait for new legislation to be developed.

Glynn Gomes assisted in the identification of relevant contacts in the Canadian and United States jurisdictions, conducted interviews to collect information and perspective, and provided a review/quality control function for the gap analysis. He was also involved in identifying relevant players for the non-governmental analysis, as well as conducting some of the related interviews and analysis.

The final deliverable was a 61-page report (plus appendix). Glynn provided substantial input into the drafting and development of Chapter 4: Other Actors and Sectors – The Role of Local Governments, Quasi-government Organizations, Tribes, Métis, First Nations, and Others.

(4) Fisheries & Oceans Canada (Fisheries Protection Program): Follow-up Program for the Keeyask Hydroelectric Generation Project

Glynn Gomes helped Fisheries & Oceans Canada, the only Responsible Authority under the (former) Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, to develop a Follow-up Program for construction and operation phases of a hydro-electric generation project (Keeyask Generation Project) on the Nelson River in Manitoba (Canada). The purpose of the Follow-up Program is to: identify verification activities (e.g., monitoring) needed to confirm predictions of project impacts; determine how effective mitigation measures applied are; assess monitoring results; and, identify adaptive management approaches that may be needed to address unanticipated adverse impacts. Glynn conducted the project in two stages. In the first stage, Glynn reviewed various Keeyask Generation Project documentation and support material to describe categories of concern/Valued Ecosystem Components, impacts predicted by the environmental assessment, proponent commitments, regulatory requirements, monitoring and reporting requirements, and agencies to which the Proponent must report to develop the Follow-up Program. Once the draft Follow-up Program was developed, Glynn conducted a consultation of federal agencies (including Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Major Projects Management Office, Transport Canada, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency and Health Canada) to solicit feedback on the Follow-up Program. Glynn incorporated these comments into the draft Follow-up Program. He also provided recommendations on next steps needed to further refine both the design and implementation of the Follow-up Program. The main deliverable that Glynn prepared was an 86-page document describing the Follow-up Program.

(4) Environment Canada: Lake Ontario Nutrients Assessment and Information Gap Analysis  

Gomes Consulting Enterprises Ltd. was part of an associate’s (Ehl Harrison Consultants Inc.’s) team that assisted Environment Canada in characterizing nutrient issues in the Canadian side of Lake Ontario. We reviewed recent reports and data to describe nutrient-related aquatic research and water quality monitoring activities, and associated results. These included findings related to phosphorous, algae, dissolved oxygen, and ecosystem impacts on aquatic habitats and species (especially, fish communities). Research results were grouped into various categories (e.g., program type, including Lakewide Management Plans, Remedial Action Plans and others; duration of activities; jurisdiction responsibility; type of chemical; and, subject area) to assist decision-makers to focus on activities of interest. We also assessed information gaps and science/monitoring priorities for the lake. The work was done to define nutrient-related science research priorities and to help achieve objectives of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (2012).

We provided strategic recommendations to assist in addressing current pressures impacting Lake Ontario’s aquatic environment. These recommendations were associated with: phosphorus and nitrogen; total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus; Dreissenid mussels; spatial and temporal watershed characterization; climate change; inter-agency coordination; and, other management initiatives.

The final deliverables included an 80-page report, a PowerPoint presentation, and an annotated bibliography.

(5) Environment Canada: Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Division – Upstream / Downstream Water Monitoring of Organic Pollutants and Mercury in the St. Clair – Detroit River Corridor

Gomes Consulting Enterprises reviewed and analyzed two contaminants level surveys: 2001 to 2004 St. Clair – Detroit River Corridor Study; and, 2006 Persistent Organic Pollutants study that included surveys of sites in the St. Clair – Detroit River Corridor as well as sites in tributaries flowing into the Corridor. We identified contaminants of concern, characterized upstream/downstream and concentration differences between the United States and Canada. We also researched and described compliance with water quality guidelines, values, criteria or objectives (i.e., Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment, and Ontario Ministry of the Environment). Contaminants considered included organochlorine substances, dioxin-like substances,  other organics and mercury.

(6) Environment Canada: Environmental Protection Branch Updated Analysis of Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy Level II Substances for Environment Canada

The Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy is a Canada-United States strategy that works to reduce or virtually eliminate persistent, especially toxic, substances from the Great Lakes Basin. Gomes Consulting Enterprises analyzed Level II priority contaminants of the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy for Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Branch (Downsview). We clarified sources, persistence and environmental fate, long-range transport potential, exposure pathways, impacts to biota (including potential for bioaccumulation) and human health effects, and available information on associated risk management associated with these environmental contaminants, while conducting information gap analysis and providing management recommendations. The GLBTS Level II substances investigated include metals, persistent organic pollutants and pesticides, and PAHs.

Environment Canada researchers and managers were contacted to obtain data on concentration of these substances in environmental media in the Great Lakes Basin. Several other activities were also conducted to complete this project, including: literature search and review, and internet research; and, investigation and quantification of industry sector sources as described in the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) and United States Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) databases. In addition to NPRI and TRI data, unpublished documents or data were provided by contacts as part of the information collected.

The report produced, Updated Analysis of Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy Level II Substances, was a 71-page document that was supported by a 4-page summary spreadsheet and an information/data CD. The result was a comprehensive information package that was easy for Environment Canada managers and others to follow and find relevant information.

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Atmospheric Change, Climate Change, Ecosystems and Biodiversity

Environment Canada: Adaptation and Impacts Research Group –  Atmospheric Change and Biodiversity in the Toronto-Niagara Region

While working for Environment Canada, Glynn Gomes researched and produced a report that described the atmospheric change impacts to the Toronto-Niagara Region for Environment Canada, Adaptation and Impacts Research Group (Downsview). He assessed, at the regional scale, how potential atmospheric change may impact biodiversity in the Toronto-Niagara Region. The report was organized into sections discussing: climate change impacts, including changes to water levels; effects of increased ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) from stratospheric ozone depletion; effects of acid deposition; and, effects of air pollutants. This work involved a traditional literature search to identify information to complete the report.

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Environmental, social, cultural and economic issues in northern Canada

Environment Canada: Northern Ecosystem Initiative (on behalf of e-cocreate solutions) –  Scan of Current and Emerging Environmental, Social, Cultural and Economic Issues across Canada's North 

Glynn Gomes assisted Doug Hyde of e-cocreate solutions in this study. We conducted research to characterize and document current/emerging environmental, social and economic issues that overlap with Environment Canada’s mandate, the mandate of Northern Ecosystem Initiative and common or shared priorities of northern Canadian residents and organizations. The study investigated climate change (e.g., permafrost changes, water regimes and hydrology, sea ice changes, increases to fires), contaminants (e.g., long-range sources, contaminated sites, increased mobilization, arctic haze), and resource use (e.g., community growth and development, mining development, oil & gas development). The final report assisted the Northern Ecosystem Initiative to reaffirm and/or revise its strategic priorities.

Download the final report in English or French in PDF format. A special thank you is extended to Environment Canada for permission to post this report. This report, Scan of Current and Emerging Environmental, Social, Cultural and Economic Issues across Canada's North, is © Environment Canada, 2006.

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Water Quality Improvement

City of Toronto: Cleaning Up Our Waterways –  The Don River and Central Waterfront Project

The project involved soliciting input and informing the public and key stakeholders about how the City of Toronto is working towards improving the water quality in the Don River and Central Waterfront. The City's project will capture and treat stormwater and combined sewer overflows, and will include upgrades to the sanitary trunk sewers. Activities included preparation of summary reports of key discussion points for various stakeholder meetings, picture research for communications initiatives, analysis of stakeholder input, and outreach with stakeholder groups.

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Stormwater Management (Organic Contamination)

Organic Contamination in Stormwater Ponds

As part of his M.Sc. done at University of Toronto’s Institute for Environmental Studies, Glynn Gomes planned and conducted a project that modeled persistent organic contamination from urban runoff in stormwater detention ponds. The chemicals studied were benzene, toluene and hexachlorobenzene. Data from environmental media made available by Environment Canada was used in the study. He conducted research that included a risk assessment-based approach to characterize the fate of these organic contaminants in various media associated with stormwater ponds: water, atmosphere, suspended sediment, bottom sediment, and soil. He used a fugacity model (i.e., a Level II fugacity model), which considers specific physical-chemical properties of both the contaminants of concern and the environmental media.

Download Glynn's M.Sc. research paper in PDF format.

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Article in Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change

Jacques Cousteau

Download the full article on Jacques Cousteau (including full citation) in PDF format as it appears in John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.'s Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. A special thank you is extended to John Wiley & Sons Ltd. for permission to post this article.

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